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What is Hysteroscopy ?

It is the examination of the inside of the womb using a fine telescope A small telescope is inserted through the vagina and cervix into the cavity of the womb. Generally this is done under general anesthesia. The surgeon then carefully inspects the lining of the womb; the images from a camera attached to the telescope are projected onto a TV screen so you can watch the pictures if you want.
It is likely that you will need a biopsy of the lining of the womb. This is performed by inserting a small sampler at the end of the procedure.

This sampling only takes 10-20 seconds but can cause a cramp-like sensation, which again settles very quickly. It is possible that a polyp (an overgrowth of the lining of the womb) may be found. This can be removed at the time of the hysteroscopy. There may be adhesions or spetum which can be cut to make uterine cavity normal.

What is Laparoscopy ?

A gynaecological laparoscopy is a procedure that allows a surgeon to look inside your pelvis, for example at your fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus (womb). It can be used either to diagnose a condition or for treatment.
Laparoscopy is almost always performed under general anesthesia. This means you’ll be unconscious for the procedure. However, you may still be able to go home the same day. Once you’re asleep,a small needle will be used to fill your abdomen with carbon dioxide gas. The gas keeps the abdominal wall away from your organs. It reduces the risk of injury. Your surgeon will make a small cut in your navel and insert the laparoscope, which transmits images to a screen.
This gives your doctor a clear view of your organs. What happens next depends on the type of procedure. For diagnosis, your doctor might take a look and then be done. If you need surgery, other incisions will be made. Instruments will be inserted through these holes. Then surgery is performed using the laparoscope as a guide.

Laparoscopy is helpful in:

  unexplained infertility

  unexplained pelvic pain

  testing of tubes –cannulation in case they are blocked

  a history of pelvic infection


  uterine fibroids

  ovarian cysts or tumors

  ectopic pregnancy

  pelvic abscess, or pus

  pelvic adhesions, or painful scar tissue

  pelvic inflammatory disease

Some types of laparoscopic treatment include:

  hysterectomy, or removal of the uterus

  removal of the ovaries

  removal of ovarian cysts

  removal of fibroids

  blocking blood flow to fibroids

  endometrial tissue ablation, which is a treatment for endometriosis

  adhesion removal

  reversal of a contraceptive surgery called tubal ligation

  burch procedure for incontinence

  vault suspension to treat a prolapsed uterus

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