Males with severe sperm factors such as low count (less than 5 million), very poor motility or a high degree of abnormal sperms. Males with Azoospermia, where there is no sperm present in the semen. The Azoospermia may be of the obstructive type where there is a production of sperms in the testis but blockage of the conduction system, which brings the sperm out into the semen. Alternately, the Azoospermia may be of the non-obstructive type, where there is a failure of the testes to produce sperms. Nowadays, in both these types of Azoospermia, sperms can be isolated directly from the testis by Testicular Biopsy.
Retrieval Techniques of PESA/TESA/TESE and subsequently, ICSI can be performed on the following cases: Males with sperm antibodies.
Males with Ejaculated Dysfunction due to spinal cord injury or malfunction such as Quadriplegics or Paraplegics.
Patients with Retrograde Ejaculation (ejaculation of the sperm into the urinary bladder) who fail to become pregnant with IUI.
Patients where fertilization has failed with In-Vitro Fertilization.